广东甜品美食联盟

奶酪奶酪!Cheese! Cheese!

闲话英语EnglishTime2018-07-03 11:48:17

Cheese to westerners is what tofu to Chinese. There are many categories and the making employs different techniques. Frankly speaking, to me, cheese is an acquiredtaste because in the very beginning, cheese smells like feet to me… with adaring foodie heart and more trying, I begin to like some of them.

奶酪对于西方人来说就像我们吃豆腐一样。两者都有很多的种类和制作方法。实话来说,奶酪的口味是需要适应的…因为一开始我就老觉得奶酪有一股臭脚丫子味…但是在不死的吃货之心的驱使下,我不懈的尝试了多种奶酪后终于找到了自己的菜。


 

Cheeses can be classified 3 ways (that all go into the various names or "types" of cheese): texture,milk, and terroir.

奶酪可以被分为三种类型(或者说有三种区分方法):纹理,奶,风土。

 

The textures of cheese are the easiest to identify, as they are visibly identifiable. Fresh cheeses are softand untreated cheeses. They are prepared less than 2 months. They tend to befresh and moist. Examples of fresh cheese are ricotta, mozzerella, and cottaged. Bloomy cheeses are also soft, but they are treated on the outside sotheir rind is fuzzy or "bloomy". It is also prepared for less than 2months, but tends to have more flavor as it is not plain. Examples of bloomy cheeses are brie and camembert. Stinky cheeses are classified by a strong smell that is given by a treatment of strong wine or liquor on the outside. These are also prepared for less than 2 months, but have very rich flavors and smells. Examples of stinky cheeses are muenster, limburger, and bleu.

因为很直观,所以奶酪的纹里是最容易观察的特点。鲜奶酪是软且没有其他加工的奶酪,一般制作时间不超过两个月。鲜奶酪比较新鲜且含水量较高。常见的先奶酪包括里科塔奶酪,马苏里拉奶酪,和茅屋芝士。白霉软质奶酪也是软的但是他们的表面有了更多加工,因此这种奶酪的表面是长毛的或者说“花皮的”。这种奶酪也是两个月内制成的,但是其有更多的风味,因为这种奶酪里有额外添加的调料。白霉软质奶酪的代表有布里奶酪和金文奶酪。臭奶酪顾名思义是带臭味的奶酪,因为在制作过程中,奶酪外面使用了高度数的葡萄酒或者烈酒。这种奶酪也是两个月内就可以制作完成的,但是奶酪的风味就十分丰富多样的了。这种奶酪有明斯透干酪,林堡干和蓝奶酪。

 

Semi-soft/semi-hard cheeses arefar less hard than the softer cheeses. They can have either earthy or smoky smells and flavors, depending on the preparation and content. They are usually prepared between 3 months and 1 year. Examples of semi-soft cheeses are fontina, gouda, and edam. Hard cheeses are the least soft and the driest cheeses. They have sharper tastes and smells, having ripened the most. They are always prepared for more than 6 months. Examples of hard cheeses are cheddar,gruyere, and parmigian.

半软质/半硬奶酪相比于软奶酪,其味道要温柔很多。很多这种奶酪闻起来会有淡淡的土腥味或者烟熏味,而这主要取决于这种奶酪的制作方式和用材。一般这种奶酪要花三个月到一年的时间来制作。这类奶酪的代表有芳提娜奶酪,古达干酪和红波奶酪。硬质奶酪是最硬最干的种类。他们气味和口感最为浓郁,是最成熟的干酪。这类奶酪需要六个月以上才能制作好,其代表有切达奶酪,古老也芝士和帕尔马干酪


 

The milk sources typically used in cheese-making are goat milk, sheep milk, and cow milk. Lamb milk has the lowest fat and typically produces a fresher, tangier cheese. Sheep milk has the fattest milk and typically produces rich cheese. Cow milk is in between these and typically produces "buttery" cheese.

制作奶酪时,常用的奶包括山羊奶,绵羊奶和牛奶。山羊奶一般而言脂肪量最少,所以用来制作新鲜且口感浓郁的奶酪。绵羊奶则有很高的脂肪含量,由此所制作出的奶酪口感丰富油多。牛奶的脂肪含量在前两者之间,所以常常制作出口感类似于绵软黄油样的奶酪。

 

The terroir (or location inFrench) is everything that affects the food source of the milk animals. Region,climate, altitude, rainfall, and food sources all affect the milk and,therefore, affect the cheese.

 

风土(或者说地理位置)指的是一切影响产奶动物的因素。地区,气候,海拔,降水,食物等都影响动物产的奶,因此也影响奶酪。

 

There are 4 steps in cheese-making (after the milk collection): curdling - the collection of curdsor milk fat, draining - removal of whew or milk liquid, salting - adding things to preserve the cheese, and ripening - the development of the bacterial growth in the cheeses for flavor and maturity.

奶品收集好后,奶酪的制作工艺分为四步:凝化-收集奶里脂肪结成的块;排液-将奶液分离出去;加调料-向制品里加入调料;腌制-等待发酵使得奶里细菌生长最后制成奶酪。

 

I know a few fantastic places in Beijing, you can message me for information.

北京有几家我私藏的奶酪店,为了避免广告嫌疑,您可以私信我要地址。

 

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